From #openttdcoop wiki
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There are some keywords we often repeat, which also majorly define how a game works. Those are the game types and it is important to know them in order to understand most plans and what to do in each game.
A cargo game is very broad definition of a "rather normal" game. The only real key of a cargo game is that we transport cargo from industries. There are many smaller differences like whether the game is mixed with passengers/mail, whether it transports secondary cargoes and so on.
This is how we call games based around towns and transporting passengers/mail which towns produce.
The most controversial and open game type is called chaos. This can mean pretty much anything, from cargo through passengers to everything atop of anything. Almost every chaos game specifies at least something for the game like train length, main station positions, and eventually even some layout. Chaos is rarely used on the Public Server unless it gives a lot of specifications. The most popular interpretation of chaos is "pax semi-chaos" which is often used with ICE pax games where the mainline design is not absolutely key.
The refit games always use some form of multi-usage trains which refit in depots in order to carry various cargoes.
Games with self-regulation can look relatively normal, but also massively complicated. It is important to know the basics of a SRNW in order to follow these games.
Shifters are a technique how to easily expand the mainline. While this technique is not used often as it makes the game lack any real challenge, it is good to know it.